Universal Human Commonalities (UHC)

Neutrophils

3D Rendering of a Neutrophil

Neutrophils are the most 'abundant' cells found in the blood stream. Although there are proportionately fewer neutrophils in the blood, most of these cells are recruited in the bone marrow, they perform a crucial task: to defend the body against infections and inflammation. Nuetrophils accomplish this by phagocytosis, the process of cells consuming other particles.

Photo Credit: 
BruceBlaus on Wikimedia Commons (http://blausen.com/?Topic=9116)

Hemoglobin

Structure of human hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that delivers oxygen from the lungs to other tissues. Interestingly, hemoglobin is identical among all humans. As blood types are formed by the difference in the membrane of the blood cells and the hemoglobin is inside the membrane, even if individuals have different blood types, their hemoglobin are identical.

Photo Credit: 
Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) on Wikimedia Commons

Oxytocin

CPK model of the Oxitocin molecule C43H66N12O12S2.

A recent study of oxytocin found that people that were administered more of this hormone exhibited a marked increase in trusting other people. Oxytocin has been considered a hormone related to bonding among humans. According to the experiment, oxytocin facilitates the process of 'prosocial behavior' or bonding by mitigating 'trust obstacles such as betrayal aversion' in humans. It does not necessarily direct a human to bond but removes 'obstacles' to forming relationships. This discovery could be utilized to develop treatments for mental disorders that have anti-social symptomes.

Photo Credit: 
MindZiper on Wikimedia Commons

Dopamine

Dopamine (C8H11NO2)

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that communicates signals from a neuron to a specific cell. As such, It is involved in many neural processes including movement control, emotions, sleep, attention and the experience of pain or pleasure. Although research regarding dopamine and its role in human psychology is not yet extensive, preliminary research and hypotheses suggest that dopamine concentrations effect an individual's personality.

Photo Credit: 
Sbrools on Wikimedia Commons

Progesterone

Ball-and-stick model of the progesterone molecule, C21H30O2.

Both males and females produce the hormone progesterone. This hormone, like most other hormones, performs a number of different duties in the body. The most commonly identified process that progesterone is connected with are menstrual cycles. The concentration of progesterone generally indicates what phase of the reproductive cycle a woman is in. The physiological effects of progesterone on males has not resulted in conclusive results. Research articles on this specific topic appear to contradict each other.

Photo Credit: 
Jynto on Wikimedia Commons

Collagen

Fancy cartoon model of the collagen triple helix.

The most abundant protein in the animal kingdom, collagen comes in various forms in the human body with a singular purpose, to aid tissues in enduring being stretched.

Photo Credit: 
Vossman on Wikimedia Commons

Fibrocartilage

White fibrocartilage from an intervertebral fibrocartilage.

Fibrocartilage is a tissue made up of other tissues and collagen. Certain forms of this tissue can repair not only itself but different cartilages and bones.

Photo Credit: 
Magnus Manske on Wikimedia Commons

Thrombocytes (blood platelets)

Platelets in a Giemsa-stained blood film

Thrombocytes or blood platelets are small pieces of platelet cells. They are the smallest blood cells, averaging 2-4 microns in diameter. Their main role is to repair tears in blood vessels. While these tiny particles conduct a very important role in the human body, thrombocytes survive for only a few weeks before macrophages remove them from circulation.

Photo Credit: 
Dr Graham Beards on Wikimedia Commons

Testosterone

Ball-and-stick model of the testosterone molecule, C19H28O2

Testosterone is a hormone secreted in the reproductive organs of men and women. It is involved in many different biological processes such as muscle development and development of male reproductive organs. Testosterone also has psychological and social effects.

Photo Credit: 
Ben Mills on Wikimedia Commons

Cortisol

Ball-and-stick model of the cortisol (hydrocortisone) molecule (C21H30O5).

Cortisol is a hormone that all humans produce in their adrenal cortex (on the edge of the adrenal glands). Although all the physiological elements of cortisol have not been determined, this hormone is known as a regulator of energy. It performs this duty by directing the body to utilize the correct fuel for the particular situation. Cortisol also directs the maturation of certain fat cells and is a immune suppressant during stressful situations.

Photo Credit: 
Ben Mills on Wikimedia Commons

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